The saggital plane is the bone which is found along the midline of the skull’s upper surface. The cephalometric measurement of this part is measured using the following:
Sella-Nasion-A point (SNA)– ranges between 82+ degrees or -3 degrees and the angle shows the horizontal position of the maxilla relative to the cranial base. An angle that is >85 degrees is considered protrusive or prognathic maxilla while that which is less than 79 degrees is considered retrognathic or deficient maxilla. The standard deviation is 3.5.
Sella-nasion-pogonion (SNPg) – describes the angle representing the extent of chin prominence relative to the orientation plane SN. The normal angle values are 80 degrees plus minus 3 degrees and an angle more than 83 degrees is prognathic mandible while that which is less than 77 degrees is retrognathic mandible.
ANB – measures the lower jaw and the normal or average range is 1-5 degrees. An angle greater than 5 degrees indicates a Class II skeletal jaw relationship described as retrognathic mandible or protrusive maxilla while an angle less than 1 degree shows a Class III skeletal jaw relationship defined as prognathic mandible or deficient maxilla.
Jaw Relations (ANPg) measures the upper jaw length while the Cranial Base (Ba) and Cranial Base (Ar) are used to measure the cranial base angel in relation to the other dental and skeletal cephalo-metrics (In Huang et al, 2011).
Maxillary inclination – the angle at which the maxillary of the teeth is inclined in relation to the teeth and this may affect the smiling profile and may change with age. This form of measurement is particularly important during orthodontic treatment as the procedure should ensure that the maxilla inclined in the same level as the mandible. This would leave enough space for the maxilla to expand especially in children whose organs are still growing. It is thus possible for the teeth to develop well producing a good smiling profile (Staley & Reske, 2011).
The mandible inclination is the inclination of the mandible in relation to the cusps. This is significant as it affects the morphology of symphysis. Jaw relation measures the relationship between the maxilla and the mandible. This is also important during orthodontic procedures and the doctor should acquire an accurate centric relation record (In Huang et al, 2011). This record is then utilized in making accurate operation in reconstructive dentistry ensuring that the person’s morphology is not deformed.
Dental-alveolar measurements are also crucial in orthodontic treatment. These are used to assess the relationship between the teeth structures. Dental-Alveolar Measurements include:
Over-jet- measures the elongation of the mouth or incisor cusp ridges of the upper teeth mouth or labial to the incisor ridges of the lower teeth. It is known in layman language as protrusion of teeth. It may result in an exaggerated look if it is abnormally extended. It is caused by abnormality in the molar alignment, missing lower teeth, flared up incisors or a combination of all these causes. The over-jet is measured from the facial of the mandibular teeth to the maxillary incisors lingual and the normal measurement ranges between 1 or 2 mm…”
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