William Shakespeare is an English poet and playwright, often regarded as the greatest English-language writer and one of the best playwrights of the world («William Shakespeare», n.d.). He is also considered to be the national poet of England. His works are imbued with comprehensive coverage of the phenomena of life and characters – this is a completeness of Shakespeare’s creations. Ideology of humanism in conjunction with the ideals and aspirations of people have always been the basis in his plays. Shakespeare knew how to capture and uncover contradictions of his time – hence, there are the dynamics with conflicts and struggle and drama in his writings.
The main theme of his works is the interaction between human and society – that is why while writing he was always trying to be up to date. English people in the 17th century believed in the diversity of evil spirits, who disrupted the order of nature, called the storm and predicted death and hunger.
And in his well-known tragedy «Makbeth» the author uses the elements of supernatural in order to attract readers and show them a darker side of our world. Having incorporated these supernatural elements in his play, he was unreservedly convinced that they were not just simple ghosts – they were creatures existed outside hallucinations.
The story begins with unusual demonstration of the powerful thunder, which implies some covered secrets going to happen further. Along with this strong lighting readers also meet with three witches, who are represented as integral components of uncanny atmosphere. In addition to their existence in general, they are able to see the future. They predict Macbeth’s life events hereafter and tell that he will be the king instead of existing one (King Dunkan). «All hail to thee, Thane of Cowdor, All hail, Macbeth! That shalt be king hereafter» («Makbeth», 1603-1606). It appears to be the most important supernatural scene in «Makbeth», because it describes the presence of supernatural and fill up the reader with understanding of plot’s queerness. The witches depict Makbeth’s dark and closed motives. Furthermore, they are represented as an accelerator, which gives freedom to unfulfilled ambitions. The main hero believes them and finds himself to be full of determination and desire to accomplish prediction.
The incredible vision of a dagger appears just before Makbeth is about to kill the King – it is one more example of preternatural in the story. Shakespeare endows this dagger with evil, which gives a push for Makbeth to commit this cruel crime. A dagger is visible only to him, and with help of this scene the author is trying to show the gist – Makbeth is open to evil and darkness as he allows their entering in his soul. He becomes the victim of his own mind.
What about the Banquo’s ghost, which appears nearly in the end of the story during the banquet, it is a supernatural manifestation too – only Makbeth can see it. This apparition reflects both Makbeth’s loss of mind and his feeling of guilt, sorrow and fear.
So, «the supernatural occurs in all the appearances of the witches, in the appearance of Banquo’s ghost, in the apparitions with their prophesies, and in the air-drawn dagger that guides Macbeth towards his victim» («Supernatural in Shakespeare’s Plays», n.d.).
Supernatural elements in the story influence the plot development and characters’ behavior. Personages are likely to believe witches’ and ghosts’ speeches. At the beginning of the play we see Makbeth as an intelligent and clever man with his own life principles and goals. But what happens then? He loses all his strong features being found in dependence on supernatural, which takes under control all events. «We see him mentally ill, he gets the confusion and cannot recognize himself» («Use of the Supernatural in Makbeth», n.d.). Preternatural is portrayed in all acts of the story, where darkness exists. That is why Shakespeare identifies supernatural with evil and shows how evil’s spirits lure people in its network by similarity of truth. Nonetheless, supernatural elements are important and integral aspects of the story and Shakespeare did everything in order to make people believe them and be captured by possibility of their manifestation in real life. Curiosity, which causes interest in further reading, makes the plot attractive, flexible and mysterious. Without these items the story would be boring and too simple for being considered as thought-provoking one.
Human is the focus of the entire Shakespeare’s drama, and the image of human in all his complexity, significance and dynamics of spiritual development is the most important artistic achievement of this great writer. The image of variability and versatility of the person is very important for him, because the personality’s change is primarily connected with changes in the real situation of the hero – his place in life and his surroundings.
In the final scenes of Shakespeare’s tragedies there is always a return to a certain equilibrium that exists at the beginning. The author is convinced in the essence of some «norm», without which life is impossible. So, Shakespeare has the reality being on scales with supernatural.
With all the differences of individual stages playwright’s creative way, in all his plays there is unity of artistic method. Goethe («William Shakespeare», n.d.) noted that «… the great foundation of his works is the truth and the life itself». Fiction and supernatural elements, the combination of conditional and naturalistic – are all manifestations of poetic approach to reality.
William Shakespeare. Retrieved from ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Use of the Supernatural in Makbeth. Retrieved from www.123helpme.com
William Shakespeare. Retrieved from slovari.yandex.ru/
Supernatural in Shakespeare’s Plays. Retrieved from http://www.field-of-themes.com/shakespeare/essays/Esupernatural.html
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